Research and development agreements and technology transfer agreements are often compatible with competition law, as some new products require expensive research that would be too costly for a company that works alone. Agreements for joint production, purchase or sale or standardization may also be legal. Use our advanced search page to find a cartel case. To see all the deals, select “Competition” in the field of mission. To view a particular type of competition case, choose from the list of topics available in the Competition Topics field. Companies involved in anti-competitive behaviour may consider their agreements to be unenforceable and may face fines of up to 10% of the group`s global turnover and possible actions for damages. Identifying a market and defining its dimensions is a “concentration process” that requires the choice of “what turns out to be the clearest picture of the relevant competition process in light of the commercial reality and the purposes of the law.” For example, distribution agreements may be illegal when manufacturers` retailers require the company to be decorated or trained in a particular way. However, they may be permitted if the objective is to create an environment conducive to the storage or sale of the product, to offer customers personalized advice, or to prevent a distributor from “releasing” a competitor`s promotional efforts. Each case must be assessed individually, taking into account the position of the parties in the market and the amounts involved.
You can report anti-competitive activities if you see them. The best results are achieved by discouraging companies from creating agreements. Severe sanctions are therefore a fundamental element of an effective policy on cartels and abuse of dominance against fundamental agreements. Sanctions imposed on individuals for their involvement in the conspiracy are an important complement to the funds paid to organizations for cartel behaviour. These sanctions may take the form of significant administrative sanctions or, in some countries, the criminal sanction of detention. The prospect of detention can be a strong deterrent for businessmen considering a cartel agreement. … there must be an effect of the purpose, effect or likely effect of the offending conduct on competition, which is important in the sense of a competition procedure that is important or relevant to the competition process. Other agreements may be automatically exempted under a “category exemption” – a category exemption – from which certain agreements within its scope are automatically exempt. Exemptions by different categories may apply depending on the nature of the agreement or the market sector concerned. For example, there are category exemptions for vertical agreements, technology transfer agreements and research and development agreements, unlike some practices that are subject to strict prohibitions, such as agreements and the introduction of minimum resale prices, concerted practices are prohibited only if they significantly restrict competition in a market.
To what extent can joint communication or lobbying actions be anti-competitive? The FTC generally pursues anti-competitive conduct in violation of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, which prohibits “unfair competition practices” and “unfair or deceptive acts or practices.” A particularly serious type of anti-competitive agreement would be cartels. Agreements on cartels and abuse of dominance generally consist of setting prices, manipulating tendering procedures, dividing markets or limiting production. As a result, cartels have little or no incentive to lower prices or offer better quality goods or services. According to economic studies, cartels overload an average of 30%.